Financial planning is the application of planning to various aspects of finance function. Basically, business finance involves the formulation of a financial plan that states the quantum of finance required, the pattern of financing and the policies to pursue for the administration of the financial plan. A business enterprise requires short-term and long-term capital. The total capital required by a concern is called capitalization. The short-term capital or the working capital is the capital required to meet the day-to-day obligations or the operating expenses. The long-term capital is required to acquire the fixed assets. Generally, on a conservative ground, a portion of the working capital is also met out of long-term capital.
The capital required may be collected from different sources. A substantial share is raised from internally generated funds. The remaining part is raised from outside sources such as issue of shares and debentures and loans. This pattern of financing is known as capital structure. It is designed in such a way to obtain the required amount needed at the lowest possible cost. Once the required amount is raised, then the funds are allocated in the best possible way to obtain the maximum benefits.
Implementing proper control systems can ensure the efficient use of the funds. Finally, all-important matters are reported to the top management to take proper actions at the right time. The financial reports are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the firm. According to Cohen and Robin, business finance aims at determining the financial resources required meeting the company's operating program. Business finance also forecasts the extent to which these requirements are met by internal generation of funds and the extent that they will be met from external resources. Business finance helps in establishing and maintaining a system of financial control governing the allocation and use of funds.